from the estate of Karin Rauschning
The emergence of German villages
In the back and forth conquest fight led by the Order of Knights from 1250 to 1283, the native population was mostly extinct and the settlements were in ruins. Only a few places were built. We still recognize them today at the round (horseshoe-shaped) location of the dwelling places or at the name. Most of the villages in our district were re-established as German villages. The Order gave a good landlord a piece of land 30 to 85 hooves and he had to occupy it with peasants. As a special reward he received the mayor’s office, the lower courts, and every tenth of hoofs for a celmatic right, and at times also the right to make a pitcher. First, the church villages were created on the highways mostly on both sides of a streamlet. For the glory of God and the salary of the vicar, 4 hooves were thrown out. The church was built down from fieldstone with extremely strong walls, because it served in military times as a refuge, in which the inhabitants were sheltered. The tower served as a lookout tower for the guard. The entrance doors were strong and could be closed with a barrier bar.
The village had the shape of an elongated rectangle, and usually drew exactly in the direction of south to north or from east to west on a stream.
The farms were laid out in two rows, the rivulet flowed in a deep valley, so the farms were on the hill. Two roads ran through the village, either merging at either end or leaving the village in the four corners. At each end of the village was a stern that the rear hat had to open and close. Even today, many a host is named after the location of his farm as Heckarndt or Heckmüller to distinguish them from the same name. Between the two village streets was the village green, the road bad path. There stood the church, surrounded by the cemetery, the pitcher, the village linden, the common bakery and the village smithy. There were the artificially dammed village ponds. In the shade of the trees was livestock at noon. The horses, cattle and sheep flocked in the morning before the shepherd drove them out. On the Anger young and old gathered especially in the spring to play and dance. Under the linden tree, the Malbaume, the peasants came together and talked about the time to drive away, threshing, mowing and rye sowing.
In pagan times, the marriages were also closed under the Malbaume, then the bride and groom were spouse and consort. As such, they enjoyed the protection and rights of the village cooperative, but also had to fulfill the duties imposed by a marriage (law). When Friedrich Wilhelm I. (1732 – 1786) founded village schools everywhere, these were created on the village green. As the population grew as a result of diminishing wars and better health conditions, the peasants’ homes were no longer sufficient and the peasants were settled on the village green, especially under Friedrich the Great. They received the building site for free, but had to pay the village fund an annual base rate. If they had settled on the soil of a Köllmers or farmers, which often younger children of the court did, then the basic interest flowed to the farmer and the Eigenkätner was peasant or even Köllmischer Eigenkätner.
Through this settlement and pushing out of the fences of the front gardens of the farmers, the Anger was almost completely consumed and the youth and many folk customs ceased.
The roads cutting vertically through the village did not usually appear until roads were laid out. Each yard was closed at the front and at the back by a stoecker fence. Behind the court was the bleaching station, and the “guarding” of the canvas, which had been left on a bleacher overnight, from the bleaching booth also gave occasion for many a joke and a love song and also a love of love.
Each farmer had to maintain the fence at his homestead and a piece of the fence of the parish, the churchyard and the school. So that the village school knew the fence of each one, everybody had to put his own mark in the piles and sticks. Since there were no extensions and the population was down to earth, everyone knew not only each one but also his needs and suffering, often the history of his ancestors to the third limb.
The fishing villages made an exception. The farms stood in a row on the beach. The individual farms were not separated by fences. Since the Eigenkätner laid out their houses completely haphazardly on the Anger, so form the fischerdörfer now partly Haufendörfer.
Only a few villages the founding year is known, eg Eisenberg 1308, Rehfeld 1322, Grunau 1331, Hohenfürst 1332, Hasselberg 1337, Hermsdorf 1337, Rauschbach 1338, Hasselpusch 1339, Grunenfeld 1350, Dt. Thierau before 1375, Alt Passarge (pitcher 1342), Rosenberg 1368, Schönlinde under Gottfried von Linden from 1372 to 74, Hanswalde 1308 ?, handholds over Passarge in 1476.
The parish registers of our circle
Heiligenbeil newspaper, Von Schulz – Rosenberg / 78
Undoubtedly the church books are among the most important sources of the Heimatgeschichte. It is due to the loving support of the clergy that I was allowed to study the church books of the churches, which are suitable for the study of the history of my ancestors. Only since the introduction of the Reformation are there church records in our province. One counts on it baptismal, marriage, dead or funeral books and confessional books. They were necessary to keep an eye on the followers of the New Teaching. The general introduction was arranged in 1573, however, the oldest surviving church book begins the baptismal record of Eisenberg until 1596. The older books are bound in pigskin, the font of the title page is often quite artful with the goose quill, which each scribe cut himself, in drawn in different colors. The writing of the entries is usually kept in Gothic letters. Considering that the rectory, the Widdem, was once as much a smokehouse as any farmhouse, and that Mr. Pastor also illuminated his “study table” with an oil lamp, a tallow candle, or a wax candle, the reader will easily realize that the books heavily smoked over the centuries. The leaves turned yellow and the writing became pale, so that in some places it can only be guessed by a sharp eye armed with a magnifying glass. As the scholarly language was once Latin, many expressions are Latin, so that anyone who does not speak Latin must first memorize all the terminology when studying the church books. He must also master the ecclesiastical calendar. Before the first entry in the new year is often a nice blessing. The dates and months are often beautifully painted in different colors, a sign that the writer may have had plenty of time. Before the first entry in 1756, with reference to the 7-year war that broke out at that time, there was almost everywhere the saying: “God give peace in your own land, happiness and salvation to every condition.”
In the earliest times, little consideration was given to the entries concerning the lineage of the person concerned. The main thing was to establish the number of baptized, the bride-to-be and the deceased, so that the entries were initially quite short. At times, the pastor did not register the child’s first name, the gap is there. In the case of a bride the name of the mother, the birthday of the child, and sometimes even the name of the father, are missing, if there was only one man in the place with the profession concerned. But since the godparents had to pay a gift to the pastor, the cantor and the bell ringer, they are listed exactly after first name and family name, state, free Kölmer, farmer, servant, Losmann and place of residence, often over 20 in number. The baptism took place at the latest on the third day after the birth, as the relatives often lived miles away in different quarters of the heavens, they were loaded by riding messengers.
The day of the baptism is indicated after the church calendar, eg Tuesday after the 1. Advent let the miller from the railroad mill mill a young son George. The godparents have been, etc … or Wednesday in the quiet week a Catholic guy from Schipperbahnau in Heiligenbeil had a son baptized, Johannes.
The illegitimate children were previously entered in the church books across or vice versa. If a child was born less than nine months after the marriage, it was usually noted. While some pastors entered the wedding ceremonies quite extensively, some shortened so much that the researcher did not know how to begin with such entries. The mothers of bride and groom are almost never mentioned, eg in Eichholz on 15.11.1677 is copulated Georg Schultz with Jfr Regina Tiedemann. More detailed is another entry: Bladiau on 11.November 1777 has been married Ludwig Böhm, köllmischer free and only son of Ludwig Böhm, Köllmer to Quilitten with Jr Charlotte Walterin, the owner George Walter in Bladiau only daughter. The groom 27 years, the bride 19 years old.
Explanation in the book Brides who had lived in dishonor were not married, but married together in the Widdem (rectory), in the sacristy (Betkammer) or under the bell towers in the hall. Meanwhile, the number of such bridal men was considerably less than today. In Eisenberg, in an appendix to the oldest Traubuche, all persons are listed who, because of transgression of the sixth commandment, publicly had to pay a fine by standing in a neck-iron on three Sundays. In Lindenau the Halseisen is seen high today at the tower, in Waltersdorf only the remains are present. Frederick the Great lifted this kind of punishment so as not to embitter the people. //
The shortest are originally the entries in the funerary or mortuary books. Not the day of death but the funeral day is indicated. Usually it was noted for taking, whether the dead person was buried quietly, with reading or a funeral sermon. Here, too, can not do much with an entry like the following: On Friday after Easter 1695, the old village shirt was buried for free, sometimes the entry is quite detailed and honorary for the dormant, although he, as the files in the archives prove it Eisenberg 1725: On the 3rd of December, the old George Schulz was divorced from this world in Eisenberg in the 84th year of his old age, having been strengthened 2 days earlier at his prayers with the Holy Supper and on the 7. buried with a funeral sermon. In Balga, the deaths that occurred as a result of an accident, are listed in an annex. Separately listed are those who were injured, drowned or burned as a result of judicial judgment. Balga was once the seat of the highest administrative and judicial authority of the Office Balga, to which the largest part of the circle belonged. Noble people were buried in the church until about 1750.
What do we learn from the church books? Our district was once much thinner than today. In Kirchberg Eisenberg around 1600 not many more than 10 children were baptized each year. Before the outbreak of the war, it must have been well over 100. At that time the sovereigns had trouble finding peasants for the desolate farms. Two hundred years ago, our ancestors were very poor. One knew only the names Michael, Johann, Jakob, Christoph, Christian, George, Peter, Jacob, Regina, Anna, Elisabeth, Dorothea, Gertrud and Johanna. Other names were a rarity. Eigenkätner were settled only after 1700 on the village green. 200 years ago, people did not grow older than today. The child mortality was quite large. Married was usually up to the age of 25 years. Widows and widows remarried when they were not very old, and the property regularly received a child from the second marriage. Illegitimate births were relatively rarer today. Cousins and Base can hardly be trusted. Nevertheless, there are not two people among the settled population of the circle who do not have common ancestors, who are therefore related when their ancestors are explored as well as the church books go back, no matter what their status.
When one family seems to die out in a parish, it spreads all the more in the other. Warlike events are rarely reflected here, but infectious diseases, most often as a result of wars and famine occurred. In 1758, on February 11, the pastor christened a child in his house, as the Cossacks had just entered the village of Bladiau.
In the book the plague seems to have claimed many victims only 1709 in a village of the parish Bladiau and in Einsiedel, parish Grunau. Grunau, the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th of August: The persons following in the Einsiedel 22 died very quickly of the plague and were immediately buried there without coffin in the earth, namely from three houses, which afterwards in Fire been plugged. 1. Witten’s house, with the husband, the wife and six children, a servant and poor soldiers. 2. Harder’s house, after his wife had been buried on the 12th of August and, with a funeral sermon, ignorant of the plague, had died two plaintive sons, a single wife, a Marjell, who died of the plague Man alone has recovered from the plague. 3. Rabbit’s house: the man, his wife, the children, a single wife, the maid as her sister, a servant.
The church books are rarely complete, missing individual years, which have been lost. The oldest baptismal, marriage and death books begin according to the consistory:
Parish baptism books, marriage books, death books
Balga * 1715, oo1715, +1715 without gaps
Bladiau * 1705 (1736), oo1705, + 1705 without gaps
Eichholz * 1668, oo 1668, + 1772
Eisenberg * 1595, oo 1684, + 1675
Grunau u Alt Passarge * 1637, oo 1637, + 1681
Heiligenbeil * 1602, oo 1602, + 1706
Hermsdorf – Pellen * 1694, oo 1720, + 1720
Hohenfürst * 1676, oo 1676, + 1676 without gaps
Lindenau * 1646, oo 1693, + 2669
Pörschken * 1665, oo 1662, + 1758
Dt. Thierau * 1676 (1751), oo 1676 (1751), + 1676 (1751) without gaps
Tiefensee * 1739, oo 1742, + 1742 without gaps
Waltersdorf * 1664, oo 1664, + 1664
Zinten * 1664, oo 1716, + 1716
In the confessional books the sacrament guests are registered. Faithful Christians used to go to the Lord’s table every six weeks. The clergyman once, when the number of souls of the churches was considerably smaller, could keep an eye on the church members on the basis of the confessional books.
A fisherman from Follendorf was quietly buried in 1737 because he had not been to the Lord’s Supper for a year. His name is not mentioned.
The köllmischen free of the office Balga after the condition of 1681
Heiligenbeiler newspaper summer 1920)
In the past, the Köllmischer Freien formed a special stand, killing their goods according to the Köllmischer Rechte, which is named after the town of Kulm. Thereafter, the estate was able to inherit sons and daughters after the death of the father. He could sell it too. They were free from the miners’ service, but during the war they had to put a rider with horse and harness. That would give you an easy service. Since the free ones only had about 4 to 8 hooves on average, all the outdoors of a village together performed this service. As a rule, they delivered 1 bushel of wheat and a bushel of grain to Martini in Balga, usually from the plow (about 2½ hooves). Then, as a sign that they recognized the reign of the Order (for the record or the confession of reign), they had annually received a Celtic penny. To deliver pennies and a spasm and wax. These services still existed when East Prussia had long since become a duchy. Today, these special rights and special duties have long been dissolved. Since the abolition of the Scharwerk in the abolition of hereditary activity from 1808 to 1815, the social special position of the free is more and more disappeared. Only in the churches do they still have their special stalls. Many of these Köllmischen economies have become great goods by buying farms, others have remained unchanged. Many are, as the list shows, still today after centuries in the same family, others have passed to female lines. Of most former free-living but still many descendants in the district of Heiligenbeil.
The year numbers indicate the year of foundation or award by the Order. The originals of the documents are usually still with the owners. Copies are in the State Archives of Königsberg im Schloss.
From the year 1681 is still a precise list available. In all, there were 59 volunteers in 1681, who together held 336 hooves.
– Gallingen is occupied by 3 Freie 1681: George Böhm, Andreas Kantel and Hans Hinzke. Everyone has 3 hooves.
– Steindorf has 1681 3 Free: Hans Drews, Peter Boehm and Merten Kruger.
– Mingen has 1681 2 free: George Dumbbell and Peter Tolkmit, together 16 1/2 hooves.
– Lehnhöfen has 1681 3 free: Peter Höpfner, Christoph and Matthes Tiedemann together 15 1/2 hooves.
– Neuwecken has 1681 2 free: Christoph Thiel and George Baumgart together 7 hooves, perform 2 services with horse and harness.
– Kildehnen has 1681 2 Free: Peter and Hans Tolkemitt together 12 1/2 hooves.
– Bregden has 1681 1 Free, Michel Birth with 4 hooves.
– Rohmansgut has 1681 1 Free: Friedrich Kantel with 6 hooves.
– Pores (1494) has 1681 2 Free: Hans Dumbbell and Jakob Kroß.
– Weißels (1398) has 1 Outdoors 1681: Friedrich Dumbbell with 4 hooves.
– Klaußitten (1637) has 1 Free 1681 Martin Gruel with 3 hooves 20 acres.
– Woydittcken (1623) has 1 Free 1681: Christian Götlich, Wildnisbereiter.
– Gedau (1639) Gedau has 1681 5 free: Friedrich Schulz, Hans Tolkmith, Michel Tolksdorff, Friedrich Radau, Peter Schwark together 22 hooves 11 acres, 1 perform a proficient service.
– Oerbabdeb / 1498) has 2 Free 1681: George Tolkmit and George Sternberg together 16 1/2 hooves.
– Preuss. Thierau (1469) has 2 Free 1681: George Böhm and Hans Bruchmann, together 12 hooves.
– Matternhöfen (1546) has 1 Free Jakob Maypole with 10 hooves.
– Bartken (1495) has 2 Free 1681: Andreas Sternberg and George Belgarth, together 9 hooves.
– Quilitten (1422) has 2 Free 1681: Ambrosius Birth and Michel Gruel together 18 hooves.
– Gabditten (1495) has 2 Free 1681: Jakob Kienast and Hans Hintzmann together 8 hooves 10 acres.
– Schleppstein (1493) has 2 Free 1681: George Tiedemann and Hans Lange, together 12 1/2 hooves.
– Bickiehnen (1560 and 1568) has 1 Free 1681: Martin Schröter 5 hooves.
– Nemeritten (1425, 1509 and 1508) has 4 Free 1681: Peter Radau, Salomin Beyer, Friedrich Mick, Michel Schirrmacher together 13 hooves.
– Kupgallen (1494, 1535) has 1 Outdoors 1681: Friedrich Steinhagen with 6 hooves
– Bickiehnen (1560 and 1568) has 1 Free 1681: Martin Schröter 5 hooves.
– Kirschdorf (1358) has 2 Free 1681: Peter Ahrend and Friedrich Perband, together 11 hooves.
– Mahlendorf has 2 Free 1681: Hans Höpner (= Hans Döpner, which is based on a spelling error in that document.The number of his descendants in various villages of the district with the exception of Pr. Bahnau is not to count) and Peter Böhm, together 10 hooves.
– Schirten (7 Handholds of 1319, 1533, 1499, 1534, 1429, 1497 and 1488) 5 Freie 1681: Hans Hübner, George Bötcher, Peter Blumenthal, Christoph Kuhnke, Augustin Böhm, together 26 hooves.
– Clausssitten (1496) has 2 Free 1681: George Behr and Hans Blankenberg total 5 hooves 20 acres.
– Kupgallen (1614) has 1 outdoors: Christoph Kirschnick 3 1/2 hooves.
– Cumgarben (1439 and 1440) has 3 Free 1681: Michell Schicknick, George Hartmann, Michel Rob total 12 hooves
– Nemmeritten (1487) has 2 free: Framitz-Hermann, Peter Klein with 7 hooves.
– Gedilgen (1584) has 1 Freeman Hans Hagen.
– Prussian Bahnau, Gelitten (now belonging to Pr. Bahnau) and Wermten belonged to the office Carben.
– Wohlau (Handveste 1506) 1 Free in 1681: Jakob Roß with 6 Huben.
– These free are called free farmers, because they do not live in villages alone, but in larger farming villages.
The Schulz of the Office Balga
Today the village school is chosen in larger villages by the local council, in smaller ones by the parishioners. Formerly, the mayor’s office was hereditary and the village schoolchildren, like the people of Cologne, had many privileges over the peasants. The Balga Commanders, who settled in our area, were trying to arrest quite a few immigrants, because the more densely populated a country, the more taxes the Order was able to collect. The Commander gave a trustworthy immigrant a piece of land for colonization. In order to attract quite a few settlers, he received the tenth part of the populated area as property interest-free to the cologne rights. However, he served in larger villages in all cries, army rides and wars to perform an easy service, i. a horse with a man and a harness or, in the future, a horse in front of the gun. Often he had the right to create a pitcher or a mill, waters were nearby, so he was sometimes allowed to fish for his table of necessities. By sale or inheritance, the property was later often divided, e.g. in Eisenberg, or the pitcher or the mill were diverted. The Schulze was a judge in the village. They distinguished small courts, where the punishment amounted to 4 shillings and large courts, where they amounted to more. Of the small dishes the Schulze received the whole amount, of the big ones only the third part. He had no reason to judge foreigners and native Prussians. He was not allowed to impose judgments on the neck and the hands (death penalty and limb mutilation), but sometimes blood and blue (corporal punishment). If the village was fully populated, the Schulze went with the elders and Patleuten to the Commies to Balga. He had the village surveyed and exhibited by the writing brother the handholds, which is still today – after 5 to 6500 years – by some Schulz saved. Now follow the single villages with their children and the year of award of the certificate. Individual families have held the mayor’s office for centuries and are still among the indigenous peasant families today.
On the whole, in the office Balga 1681 were 28 Schulzen with 92 Huben and 6 acres. They performed seven services, one horse in front of the gun, three cologne pennies, three spasm and wax and fifty marks interest.
In the Amte Carben 1675 were 9 Schulzen with 28 Huben who rendered 3 ½ services.
For centuries this order of the order had proved its worth, but as the settlement became denser, the roads became better, and the number of officials increased, it became the prerogative of the Schulzen after the other, first that of the judiciary.
If you want to learn more about the different rural estates, you can buy the book of the Königsberg scholar Dr. med. Robert Stein “The Rural Constitution of East Prussia at the End of the 18th Century.”
1. Schurwerk-free Schulzen:
Waltersdorf (1494) 6 ½ hooves, in 1675 he is called Jakob Grunau (Gronau),
Birkenau (1495) 3 Hufen, in 1675 he is called Christoph Schulz,
German – Thierau (1681) George Radtke and Herzogswalde (1681) Michel Kunz together 8 Huben, they perform a service with men and harness and order the farmers to the Scharwerk.
Bladiau (1495) 4 Huben, he does a service and orders the Scharwerk, 1681 he is called Christoph Birth
Schönwalde (1573) 6 Huben, he is doing a service, he is about to join his neighbors at the Scharwerk, he has good supervision of agriculture, and he sees that the heirs are occupied by good, efficient people. In 1681 he is called Michel Arndt.
Eisenberg (1308). In this village live in 1681 two Schulzen named George Schultz and Christoph Matern, together have 8 Huben to Cologne rights, from Heinrich von Eisenberg, Komptur to Balga 1308 together with the small dishes and the third part of the great courts, as well as free fishing with frame and fishing in the Eisenberg mill pond for table needs been prescribed. On the other hand, they ought to take the “butcher’s shit out of the mills Bahnau and Eisenberg uffs Haus”, and umzechweise with the nearest neighbor and belonging to the mill electoral farming villages, they must also help bring the stones and waves of such mills after the prescription of February 28, 1675. (The descendants of that Schulz lived a few years ago in Kgl. Rödersdorf, those of Matern are still located in Eisenberg today).
Wohlau (1506) 6 Huben, the Schulze has the small meals and does a service, 1 Pfennig and 1 pound of wax, 1681 there is Jakob Ross Schulz.
Böhnigkenwald (1534) 4 Huben, the Schulze is on duty, in 1681 he is called Michell Schirrmacher.
Schönlinde (1494) 5 Huben, he is free of interest, receives the small plates and 1/3 of the great dishes and does a service. 1681 are two Schulzen: Michell Tim and Hanss Tiedemann.
Rödersdorf (1494) 3 Huben, in 1675 he is called Georg Schröter.
Lank (1568), the Schulz does a service by putting a horse in front of the gun. 1681 is Hannss Tolksdorf Schulz.
Schönfeldt (1593) 3 Huben, he does a service, in 1675 he is called Hans Schulz. //
2. Schulzen who have Freihuben:
Rehefeld (1322) 5 Huben a service, 1675 George Schulz and Martin Lindenau
Grunau (1331) 6 ½ Huben, George Schröter and Hans Ehlert do a service 1675 ?.
Hansswalde / 1543) 3 Huben Michel Krause, 1675 was the mayor’s office pledged to Gerhardt Sutoren in Königsberg.
Rauschbach (1514) 3 Huben. The Schulze had the income of the small courts and 1/3 of the great courts. He had to drive the butcher’s grain from the Eisenberg mill to the house in Balga, order the Scharwerk, and deliver 1 pfennig and 1 pound of wax. In 1681 he was named Friedrich Fischer.
Hohenfürst (1323) 5 Huben, 1505 3 Huben. He has the income of the small courts, he has to diligently supervise the flock and order the flock. 1681 are two Schulzen, Peter Tolksdorf and Matthes Thurau.
Hermbsdorf (1337) 6 Huben. He has the income of the small courts and 1/3 of the big ones. He has free fishing with angling, ramen and small yarn in the mill pond to Hermsdorf and ordered the Scharwerk.
Rossitten (now Krs. Pr. Eylau) 1634? 4 Huben. He is to have supervision in the execution of the Scharwerk and let himself be used in forwarding and forwarding of the letters. In 1681 it is Hans Abrahamowsky and Andreas Kirschnick.
Husseinen (1584) 4 Huben. Obligations as in Rossitten: He should have supervision in the execution of the Scharwerks and can be used for forwarding and forwarding of the letters, 1681 George Schröter.
Stolzenberg (1563) 4 Huben. Hans Keil bought the mayor’s office for 60 marks before 1681. He should have the supervision when grass-grassing, Heuaust and burning the Kohlhaufenszur Notdurft of the office, then in the Pellsche heath.
Schönborn (1563) 4 Huben. He is to diligently supervise that the heirs are occupied, to see in the wilderness, that hunting, firing, wood cutting and other things are not done by anyone.
3. Schulzen, which same farmers must order the Scharwerk together with the post office:
Hoppenbruch (1470) 2 Huben, he is to bring letters from the office Balga to the nobility and others in the parish Bladiau. In 1681 he is called Fabian Hein.
Königsdorf (1598) ½ Hube, 1681 he is called christoph Wiedner.
Kahlholz (1497) a garden, 1681 he is called Christoph Simon.
Wolitta (1681) has no land because of the school’s office, in 1681 he is called Peter Pojet.
Follendorf (1494) In 1681 he is called Christoph Hoffmann.
Rosenberg (1469) In this village lives a Schulz named Andreas Kantel, he has four acres of fields and two acres of Siegfried flat from Schwarzenberg 1469 in addition to the free fishing in the Biberlake, of which he ordered the Scharwerk as other Schulzen and must annually one a penny and a pound of wax.
Passarge (1476) 1 garden, Jakob Kohnert 1681
The mills of the Office Balga
The indigenous people of our province crushed their crops mostly in mills, of which some in Prussia – Museum in Kaliningrad and in the collection in the park can be seen to Schettnienen. Also on the heap of stones some farm is one, unnoticed, perhaps even shattered. It was a trough-shaped hollowed stone in which the fruit is poured. With a fist-sized stone they were crushed.
The Order reserved the right to approve the facilities of mills. Nobles and Kölmer were given the right to apply mills. There was only water mills. Because at that time were still many forests, and artificial drainage was not well known, the water flowed much more slowly, so that the millers had all year water. Fishing in ponds mill stand to the village mayor or the miller. The miller had to deliver fattened by any way a certain amount of grain, flour or a certain amount of pork into office
In many cases, the mills Fliehburgen, where residents took refuge in wars were. By inheritance or purchase the mill sites were independently.
There was Mühlzwang, the residents of each village were assigned a determinate mill as customers. Mahlgeld was rarely collected, instead, the Metz grain was collected from 16 bushels to Metzen 1 Metz, or customers had to drive the grain to Metz Balga to vacate the mill pond and repair the dams. ,
The mills in the country belonged almost entirely to the nobles.
Grinding mills with two aisles were Wolittnick (1570), Fedderau (1469), Neusieden = Naußeden, Hasselbusch to Pellen duly Bahnau (1632) to Lindenau, Pochlulen? (1570), towing stone, stone Ahren (1543), Kling Beck (1539), Wilkenith (1510), Partugallehoff (1475), Rödersdorf.
Hermsdorf was a Erbmahlmühle that could invest in the establishment of the village Schulze 1337th
In Hoppenbruch the house mill for the castle in Balga was.
The mill in Eisenberg had an independent owner always.
Besides grinding mills were cutting mills, Bark Mill and for clothier fulling mills.
The two saw-mills of the Office Balga in Wilkenith (1510) and in Arenstein often incumbent duty to cut a certain amount of boards for the office.
The grinding mill to Zinten had 3 courses and yielded 30 bushels of wheat, 3 loads 30 bushels of corn, malt and 6 liters of 10 pigs.
Zinten also had a fulling mill.
The dates refer to the last ceremony.
In the book erl.
The grinding mill to Heiligenbeil had four courses in 1676, including to wheat one. She was oberschlägig and had to pay 30 bushels of wheat, 3 load fatted (each 60 bushels) and 30 bushels of corn, 18 liters of malt and 12 pigs. The wheat flour of Heiligenbeil was famous for its delicacy across the province.
The mill pond was a Heiligenbeil Hube large and belonged to the office. Every citizen had a day off in the evening and in the morning to fish with one hand wading in the sunshine to provide six sacks, but only to relieve themselves of the table. In alignment was fished there for the rule. The pond has held approximately 7 trains, but he could not be released because of the grinder.
In addition, in Heiligenbeil was a Lohmühle, which belonged to a tanner, it discounted the trades of tanners and shoemakers each 6 marks) and a fulling mill which belonged to the office. Of each piece of cloth 5 pence, and from each Techer leather 6 penny had to be paid.
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